About Human Skin Color

Ce billet de blog en français

The news is mentioning skin color quite a lot lately, especially in the last decade. “Black Lives Matter”. “White Supremacists”. The “Great Replacement”. A lot of our focus is about human skin color.

As I mention in my novel “The Providential President” (currently only available in French), the concept of “human races” is an invention that has no practical ground. How do you call the offspring of one white and one black parents? There is no such thing as “black race” or “white race”. In fact, there are no boundaries. There are only shades, a continuum.

Besides, skin color is not correlated with other physical traits. Some native Africans are black, but others have a very light skin. Some Native Americans are very fair, while others are quite dark. Most Indonesian people are not lighter than the darkest Africans, and so are some Peruvians as well as Australian Aborigines. Maoris, who are not far off the Australian coast but in a temperate area, have similar skin colors to Southern Europeans. This makes little sense if we think about human migration paths.

Three men from different places and paths in human migrations: Australian Aboriginal, Peruvian, Tamil


So, where did we get our skin color from?

Sun Exposure Correlation

Nina Jablonski and her husband  are very clear about this: skin color depends on sun exposure. Period. Nothing else. Yes, it has nothing to do with facial features, other bodily features or social behavior. However, the correlation with sun exposure – actually ultra violet exposure – is statistically extremely significant.

Well, you’ll tell me: “Yeah, big news, Africans are black and Norwegians are white. As if we didn’t know”. Okay, this is probably not revolutionary. However, it is impressive that such a strong correlation exists. It is exactly as if skin color must absolutely be essential for human survival in a given latitude. And this, regardless of any other human trait.

Here is a map of people’s skin colors all over the world:

And here is the UV exposure for the same world:

Indeed, all people with dark skin are located near the equator. A little further away, around the tropics and subtropics, we find people with tan skin that can adapt in time to sun exposure, similar to chameleons. Beyond those boundaries, people are mostly fair.

Note that there are two geographical “anomalies”, due to mountain chains: the Andes and the Himalayas. Both have very high UV exposure due to the altitude, and accordingly dark skinned people.

Two main factors contribute to how vital our skin color is at a given UV exposure level.


Folates are molecules (vitamin B) that have a key role in cellular division and human growth. They are found everywhere in the body, including on the skin. So they are quite essential for survival. A deficiency in folates can cause anemia, cancer, cardio-vascular diseases, and congenial deformities in newborns.

However, folates are extremely sensitive to UV light, and literally break down under UV exposure. Accordingly, some research show that folate levels plummet during the summer in the blood stream of humans. Because of this, people who live in areas with high exposure to UV light need to develop dark skin to shield their body against damage to their folates. As a side note, UV light destroys DNA, which is why it is used as a disinfection agent. Too much UV light is very detrimental, and causes skin cancer.

By the way, if you are exposed to the sun a lot in the summer, the best to avoid folate deficiency is to consume a lot of legumes and green vegetables, which are rich in folates. By the way, males have naturally lower levels of folates than females.

This explains why people who live under strong UV exposure must have dark skin. Those without the dark skin have less healthy offspring – if any offspring at all. Natural selection over the generation does the rest.

Vitamin D

Side note: vitamin D is actually not a vitamin, but rather a hormone. What’s the difference? Hormones are molecules that can be synthesized by our body through chemical reactions. On the other hand, vitamins cannot be directly created by the body: we need to eat/drink them from various sources in our environment. In the case of vitamin D, cells in our skin produce it when exposed to UV light. So, given the definition above, “vitamin D” should actually be called a hormone.

While UV light can be toxic in large quantities, paradoxically it is also essential for our body to function. As I mentioned above, it allows our body to synthesize vitamin D, a vital component.

One of the major role of vitamin D consists in transporting calcium to build bones. Besides, it plays an important role in the immune system, and many of our body’s function. In fact, vitamin D deficiency has been consistently associated with higher fatal outcomes for respiratory diseases in many clinical studies. Just saying! A lack of vitamin D can cause osteoporosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer, among other things. Some even suggest that it plays a big role in cognitive performance.

So, what happened to humans who migrated to regions where UV exposure is very limited? Well, those who kept their dark skin pigmentation blocked UV light, thus stopped vitamin D production by the body. Given the importance of this vitamin, those individuals certainly didn’t do well compared to those who lost their pigmentation.

To sum up, blocking UV light is great when there is too much of it. However, it is totally counterproductive to block it when there is too little of it. And when your bones break because you lack vitamin D, it becomes difficult to bear a healthy child!

Food adaptation

Besides, all cultures living at high latitudes have included an essential element in their diet: fish oil, especially the cod liver one, which is basically the richest food in vitamin D on the earth!

If you are not getting much sun exposure, there is a high probability that you are vitamin D deficient. Consequently, you should probably eat vitamin D-rich foods: fish (swordfish, salmon, tuna, sardine, mackerel…), beef liver, pork chops, chicken breast and eggs, mushrooms, milk or yogurt, oranges, etc. Still, remember that a balanced diet is the best. For instance, eating only tuna fish could expose you to high levels of heavy metals, and you certainly don’t want that.

The Compromise

Consequently, humans all over the world have consistently developed different genes to adopt their skin color depending on UV levels at their home.

But the most striking part comes from sub-tropical areas. Humans who live in those places are faced with a dilemma: the sun can be scorching in summer, but is weak during the winter. This causes problems for very dark or very light skins. On one side of the spectrum, black people don’t get white if exposed to very little sun. As a result, they become vitamin D deficient. On the other end, white people don’t tan under a heavy sun, they burn like steaks – their folates break, and they get skin cancer.

Thus, those humans who live in-between need to develop a special skill: adaptation. Their skin can be tanned easily depending on sun exposure. Indeed, people from the Maghreb or the Middle East have quite a fair skin when not exposed to the sun, but tan very strongly when they are exposed to it. Further, they can get as dark as “black people” when they get a tan.

Conversely, white people up north tend to have a different outcome:

Such is the power of evolving a skin color that matches the environment.

The social aspect

In Japan, Geisha use white paint on their skin. Indeed, skin color takes a social dimension. A white skin denotes a educated and well-off person, who stays indoors most of the time. Conversely, a darker color is the sign of a field laborer, a manual worker, a sub-human. The same prejudice goes for India, where lighter skins gives a higher social status.

Unfortunately, this way of thinking is still too common. We get our skin color by our ancestors, one single generation cannot change it, since this is driven by long-term evolution. However, we still observe a fascination for white skin, which is no more than a black skin that has lost its pigmentation to adapt to a different environment.

Besides, some studies that link genes and “intelligence” fuel more confusion on the matter and enforce the biases on skin color.


Studies show the correlation between some genes and IQ test scores. Although it is interesting to know those results, we shouldn’t draw conclusions too fast from them. Even less create “superior races” on those criteria. Especially as the confusion “skin color=genetic population” is often entertained.

First, an IQ test is a special test that measures a number of capacities. Should our definition of “intelligence” be limited to such aptitudes measured by the tests? Specifically, IQ tests are mostly based on logic, reasoning, calculation. Shouldn’t we also consider as “important” some other human characteristics such as empathy, generosity, people’s “warmth”, to describe a population? Narcissistic people and manipulators are even more dangerous when they have high IQs.

Besides all those are only averages. As any average, it doesn’t mean anything for a single individual. One person who belongs to a certain group with a “lower intelligence” on average may actually be much smarter than another person from a “very intelligent” group.

We should remain extremely cautious when basing a whole ideology on those studies, to confirm… Nazi opinions.


Skin color highly correlates to one and only one environmental factor: sun and UV exposure. It evolves independently of other factors. It is ironical that some people base their judgements of others on skin color alone. Think twice next time you see someone with a skin tone you judge as “negative”. Indeed, their behavior or their intelligence has nothing to do with their skin color. It simply matches how much sun their ancestors have been exposed to.


Crypto-euro: the ECB’s Ultimate Weapon

Disclaimer: what I explain here is viewed from the eyes of Central Bankers. If I were a Central Banker, I would think differently. But what I present here is the point of view of Central Banks, at least the one they make public. There is also quite a bit of speculation here on what choices they will make in the near future.


With public debt at extremely high levels everywhere in Europe and a dying banking system, the ECB (European Central Bank) and the Euro are on the verge of collapse. So is the US financial system, but for now we will focus on Europe.

In my 2016 book “Money, What You Don’t Know”, I was already mentioning that Central Banks (including the ECB) were looking into crypto-currencies. During the last years, the ECB has revealed bit after bit the possibility of having a Central Bank Crypto-Money in the short term. Citizens would have a bank account directly at the ECB. It has also recently spoken about “helicopter money”. How does all this add up? Why are all these needed? Or are they?

The root cause

The root of the problem is the way money is currently created. Right now, private banks are the ones creating the bulk of the money. At least, that is how it works in the Eurozone and in the US, as well as in some other places on Earth.

The system is similar all over the world: Central Banks issue fiat money, then the private banks take as much fiat money as they can from the economy, and start giving credits (loans). When a bank offers a credit, it creates that money, rather than having to take into its reserves. And that money is destroyed upon paying back the credit. This system has many problems, as I have detailed in two of my books: “Money, What You Don’t Know” and the French « La monnaie : l’essentiel ».

But now we will stop on one of its problems: the need for more and more money. Indeed, to fuel the mechanism of credits, you need to have more and more money in the economy. If the money supply diminishes at some point, the whole system collapses.

The problem

So, why is this a problem at all? Well, since the 2008 subprimes crisis, the economy by itself does not generate enough “growth” for the whole financial system to be sustainable. By the way, only theoretical economists don’t understand why this is a real problem. You cannot have infinite growth on a finite planet, it is quite a simple concept to understand. In this regard, maybe asteroid mining will save us. Maybe not.

Anyway, after the 2008 crisis, Central Banks faced one big problem: how to create enough money so that the banking system can continue operating? Obviously, growth was not sufficient and not enough credits were being made to create more money.

The first phase (2008-2015)

Central Banks don’t have so many tools to fuel the economy. They can create bank notes, but only to a certain extent. Printing a banknote costs money. By contrast, creating money for a credit is essentially clicking the button of a mouse on a computer. This is why, in the Western world, 90% of the money is digital and created by the private banks. It is quite different in other places, where people mostly use cash in their daily lives.

Anyway, the role of Central Banks is to take care of the banking system, and ensure its survival. When they saw that money would be scarce if they didn’t do anything in 2008, they had to take action.

To save the banking system, the Central Banks used their first tool: the Official Bank Rate. Indeed, this rate has a direct influence on the interest rates at which private banks give credits. And of course, interest rates are one of the main drivers behind the decision to take a credit or not.

If interest rates are high, people are more reluctant to take a credit, given that they will have to pay back a lot more for the credit. Conversely, when interest rates are low, people are more inclined to take a credit. This is quite obvious.

By lowering the interest rates, the Central Banks managed to make banking credits very attractive, thus pushing people to take more credits.

The second phase (2015-2021)

This system looks great. However, when you still need to stimulate the credits and the interest rates have been lowered to the point where they are negative, you have a problem. No banking system can survive giving out money to people who take a credit. And indeed, the interest rates became negative in quite a short time.

The Central Banks, including the ECB, had to find another way of keeping the system afloat. The problem is that they can’t really do much. Normally, they are actually not allowed to create so much digital money. That digital money is also supposed to be only used by the banking system to exchange debts and bills between banks.

However, it was a matter of life and death. The ECB, along with other Central Banks, started using a tool which is normally prohibited and used only in emergency cases: Quantitative Easing. Basically, the Central Bank is “buying public debts” and injecting money into the financial system.

Through all those actions (interest rates and quantitative easing), the Euro money supply has doubled every 10 years in the last 2 decades! That is a 10% yearly inflation rate! For more detail, I explain all this in my book.

What now?

Quantitative Easing cannot go on forever. Furthermore, it doesn’t seem to solve the problem so much. Indeed, I have mentioned a 10% inflation rate, but that is not what we observe in everyday life. Yes, prices increase, but they don’t double every 10 years. In fact, the money that is generously dispatched by the Central Banks never goes back to the “real economy”. It remains in the banking system, where banks use it to gamble on the stock market and also keep it in their accounts as a safety net. Who thought tickle down economy was real?

Central Banks have to face the fact that they need another tool if they want the banking system to survive. Maybe the best way would be to acknowledge the failure of that system, but doing this would put their credibility at risk.

Debt and Inflation

So far, the ECB has set a target for a 2% yearly inflation (roughly). Although inflation can be calculated with a lot of biases, let’s pretend it did achieve that goal in the last 10 years.

The problem is that there is a lot of debt in the economy right now. Private companies are especially accumulating debt following losses during the Covid lockdowns and the general slowing down of the economy. Similarly, the already very indebted states everywhere around the world are forced to have more debt to finance their collapsing economies.

From the standpoint of a Central Bank, there is one way to fight debt and relieve the economy from it: inflation. The idea is simple: if your owe a fixed amount of money, and money is worth less and less value, then you owe less and less as a result. Typically, if you manage to have 10% inflation per year, your debt is simply halved in 10 years.

However, remember that a Central Bank is not supposed to create money directly. So they have to change the rules.

A Digital Currency

The ECB is making more and more statements in favor of a “digital euro”. Some call it a “crypto-Euro”, but this is clearly a misnomer since a centralized crypto-currency is nothing more than an oxymoron!

Anyway, the idea behind the ECB’s digital money is that every citizen of the Eurozone would have a digital wallet at the ECB. In other words, along with your bank account, you and I would also have an ECB account. The amounts allowed in that account would be limited to a few thousand euros, but it would be there.

The main driver between this, the ECB says, is that “citizens are ditching cash”.

Really? What is the point of this? Why such a big change, a big communication, on an account where you could have a few thousand euros, when there are billions of euros turning around every day?

Helicopter Money

“Helicopter Money” is simply money created by the Central Bank and freely distributed to citizens. In Europe, Mario Draghi, the President of the ECB at the time, said that the concept was “interesting”. Peter Praet, the Chief Economist of the ECB, stated:

Yes, all central banks can do it. You can issue currency and you distribute it to people. That’s helicopter money.

Although there is no official statement that the ECB is looking into it, there are many people pushing toward it.

Now, you need a system to distribute helicopter money. If every single person has 5 bank accounts in 5 different private banks, it is quite difficult. You also have to distinguish between associations, private companies, and individuals.

Now, if every individual in the Eurozone had a bank account directly at the ECB, now things would be made much easier! The digital account at the ECB is the prerequisite for Helicopter Money.

Is it a serious option?

Think about it. The banking sector lacks money. They are literally paying people to take credits! The ECB has tried everything it could to inject more money into the banking system, and it’s running out of options. There is a lot of debt around that will simply choke the economy on the long run.

Now, you have a tool that lets you inject money directly into the economy, by giving it directly to the citizens. You create money. You create inflation, which will lower the overall debt. And in the meantime, you get rid of cash, which costs you money and empowers your citizens – along with money laundering.

If I were in a Central Banker’s shoes and I wanted to keep the system alive, I wouldn’t think twice. I would go for it without a micro hesitation.

What about us?

Again, this is only the vision of a Central Banker. As an individual who has thought a lot about money, we would be better off throwing away the current banking system. Restart from scratch. It wouldn’t be the first time in history. And sometimes, a fresh start with a better system is much better than let the older one rot away.

Some people may think that this is a version of a Universal Basic Income. Well, maybe. But I warned in my books that the UBI can also be a trap. A sneaky method to help the corrupt system survive.

But for us, citizens, there is already an alternative, and every single one of us can choose it freely: Libre Money. Be sure to check out the Relative Theory of Money, as well as my book “Money: What You Don’t Know” to discover your options.

On the Shoulders of Giants

Each of our current realizations as a species has been possible because we have been inspired by our ancestors. No need to reinvent the wheel. Every generation gets its inspiration from the previous generations. Of course, learning from the best of our predecessors is the most efficient way of growing ourselves and transcend their knowledge. Hence the title of this post.

Writing, along with its twin, reading, is a unique way of transmitting knowledge. Today, we are in the immediacy of videos, the Internet, other ways and other times. However, written knowledge is an extremely compact and powerful way of spreading ideas. Reading books is crucial. However, there are so many great books out there! If you are like me, you never know when to find the time to read everything you would like to read. There are too many interesting – no, thrilling, really! – books to read.

I will offer on this blog some summaries of books which I believe are important. This doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t read them. On the contrary, I hope I can be an inspiration for you to read more!


A new little summer trick to preserve your fruits and vegetables… without a fridge

Preliminary note: this technique works best in dry regions, and of course applies in hot environments. Otherwise, preservation is quite easy.

The summer heat always poses a conservation problem. Besides, it is the season when fruits and vegetables are produced in abundance. It gets difficult to consume the daily production right away, even with a small garden. Our ancestors have developed treasures of imagination and ingenuity to preserve their food without modern fridges: salting and pickling, jams, smoking, intentional fermentation (alcohols, lacto-fermentation…), and of course fighting in the meantime with heat (using grottos and deep cellars far from the ambiant heat, etc.).

In hot and dry countries, people have been using since the dawn of time systems to fight against the heat: ventilation shafts, water evaporation… which is the point that interests me right now.

Water evaporation

Water has a very interesting physical property: its evaporation uses a lot of energy. Using energy means… refrigerating. For as far as humans records go, there are countless documents which show that humans have always used this property to cool water in hot weathers. Some Egyptian frescos show slaves fanning water pots, probably to accelerate water evaporation thus cooling them down.

Our body also takes advantage of this characteristic to cool itself, especially since the human race has lost its fur. By using heavy sweat, the body creates on top of the skin a thin layer of humidity which evaporates and thus regulates body temperature, by capturing the excess of energy from the body. Ingenious, isn’t it? Sweat also has other functions, but cooling down the body is an essential one.

The pot in the pot

In hot countries, people use a technique called “the pot in the pot”. A small waterproof pot is put inside a bigger, porous, pot (terra cotta…). Then sand is poured between the two pots, after that water is poured over the sand. The water penetrates the sand, runs through the outside, porous pot, which “sweats” that water, thus refrigerating itself just like the human skin. A smart Nigerian engineer even patented a technique, inspired from his grandmother’s ancestral habits.

The same principle has been perfected in India with a clay electric-less fridge, the mitticool:

The towel

This inspired me an idea. Building something out of clay is a no-go for me. I wanted to use something simple with objects around me to preserve some fruits and vegetables with the current hot and dry weather in my region. So I just put what I wanted to preserve in a case or crate, took a towel and soaked it with water. Then, I covered the case with my wet towel. As the towel dries up, the water on it evaporates and cools down the towel, which in turn cools down the contents of the case. The temperature drop is of several degrees, which helps preserving the contents.

Of course, this technique works best if the ambiant humidity is not so high. A little air circulation is also better to accelerate the evaporation thus the cooling. On the other hand, more moving and dry air dries the towel much faster, so it needs more frequent attention to wet it again. But if the towel is thick enough, wetting it twice a day is enough. Of course, the wetter it stays, the better, depending on how much effort you can put in this.

It is then possible to store in the case whatever needs to be preserved. It benefits from a lower temperature, and it is permanently kept moisturized, unlike the dry air of your fridge that sometimes dries up food too fast.

Mold and Fungus

Here comes a big, well know, problem. We all know what happens when something is kept consistently wet for a long time, especially in hot weathers. Mold and fungus develops rapidly. Besides, fruits and vegetables generally decay due to mold. So we need a way to fight back against the mold that will inevitably try to grow. We are literally making a Petri dish for mold here! They can grow both on the towel and on the organic matter inside the case.

A solution for the towel would be to change it regularly. But then you are going to spend a lot of time, energy, water, caring for the towel. And in the meantime, the vegetables will decay.

But there is a much more efficient and simple solution.

Sodium Bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate is inexpensive and abundant. It is the “Magic Powder”.

Mold and fungus literally hate sodium bicarbonate. This product can be even used at very low dosage to treat some diseases and plant molds like mildew. It is not really a fungicide, but it literally stops mold from growing.

Besides, simple table salt is also anti-fungal and mostly antibacterial. Only some very specific bacteria can survive in a salty environment. The big advantage of salt is that it can directly be extracted in nature. You should then choose a salt that has been directly extracted from the sea and dried naturally. Producing sodium bicarbonate, however, requires several steps, including warming to high temperatures, which is consuming energy.

So the trick is very simple: put some bicarbonate powder or salt on your towel first, water it for the day, put it on the case, and you’re done! It will not only preserve the towel from mold, but it will also keep the mold away from the fruits and vegetables inside the case, due to the presence of the very basic pH of the bicarbonate or salt around them. They will decay much slower. From my own experience, with ambiant temperatures around 30°C (86°F), you can preserve salad, zucchinis, and everything else for more than a week thanks to this trick.

I have found this documented nowhere, I have simply experimented it myself, it works great!

Preservation… is an Art

As final words, I would like to stress the fact that preserving food is not to be done randomly. Not everything should be kept together. Certain fruits produce ethylene which accelerates the decay of most vegetables, so you should keep those apart. Some fruits and vegetables really don’t like humidity so this trick is not for them. But this is another subject, on which you can find a lot of information on various websites.

Have you tried my trick? Please write your experience in the comments!

Take a quiz!


(Ce test existe aussi en français !)

Communicating about money is not always an easy task. Even bringing up the subject in a conversation can be difficult.

Reactions generally go from “Let’s speak about something else!” to “Such a boring subject!”.

But when you trigger the ego, there is generally a response. Indifference turns to vanity of knowing something.

So here it goes, take this quiz and see how much you know about money! Test your friends! Some results may sound strange to you: it’s perfectly normal, I selected the most common misconceptions on the subject.

Do you think you know enough and you don’t even need to see the answers?

Take the test without answers!

You don’t feel confident and want to learn something?

Take the test with answers!


Facebook’s “Libra” Already Exists… as Free Software and Without Facebook!

Facebook’s future “Libra” draws a lot of attention. On this matter, we hear a lot of things – true and false. Even the French Minister of Economy said: “Money created by private entities could challenge the Currencies of the States”. But nowadays, no State creates a dime of money. Private entities, Central Banks and Commercial Banks, create all the money that currently exists.

Not only a Currency…

Very few have noted that Libra is not only a Currency. Under the hood, Facebook also wants to manage identities. Their aim to solve the “problem” of anonymity on the Internet. In their whitepaper, they state:

An additional goal of the association is to develop and promote an open identity standard. We believe that decentralized and portable digital identity is a prerequisite to financial inclusion and competition.

Let’s read between the lines. The term “decentralized” here means “servers spread across the different members of the association”. Thus, this model is fully centralized. In reality, only members of the association can manage those servers and control them. Thus, they present us a “centralized” model and stick on it a “decentralized” label. Keep your eyes open.

It already exists!…

However, I really don’t get why some are hypnotized by this “novelty”. Actually, a system which offers the same functionalities already exists. Besides, it is a Free Software which obviously depends on no private entity: Duniter.

This software can manage a fully decentralized currency. In addition, monetary units are created only as the counterpart of a human living in the economy. Therefore, it doesn’t depend on the “goodwill” of an elite who would decide when and how to create it.

Above all, Identity Management in this software is also totally decentralized. No company, no group, no association, can control it. It is kept alive by human beings, sovereign individuals, who certify each other directly in a peer-to-peer manner, with no external intervention. The icing on the cake is that those individuals control the underlying blockchain that stores the currency.

… and it is already running!

Besides, Duniter is not a “whitepaper” of “something that may happen in the future”. A Libre Currency already exists and runs since March 2017. It is called Ğ1. As of today, more than 2100 people (and growing fast!) support it in French-speaking countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…). Besides, anyone can create other Libre Currencies all around the world, the software is available!

So, are we going to stay in our sofa and let Facebook take over the world? Or are we going to get a hold of our own destiny?

The decision is ours.



To get a better understanding of money, and especially Libre Money, I have published a book, “Money: What You Don’t Know”:

The Yom Kippur War did not Cause the 1970s Oil Crisis (in fact, it’s the other way around)

In my book, “Money: What You Don’t Know”, I write that Nixon ditching the Gold Standard was the trigger for the “oil crisis” of the 1970s. But when you read this, you obviously think: “That can’t be true. We all know that the bad OPEC guys caused the Oil Crisis and that Yom Kippur was the culprit.”

I certainly won’t deny that some political reasons may have played some role in the crisis. However, I claim that they are not the main factor. Want proof? Here it comes.

Rather than believing what we are told, we should always look at the numbers.

Oil price surge

Here is what they present us: the Saudis with their OPEC friends started an embargo on oil in 1973. The reason given for the embargo was to protest against countries that were supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Or in the worst case, we’re told it was the OPEC guys who got really greedy. As a result, the prices of oil skyrocketed for good:

Yes, indeed, when looking at prices in real dollar (the blue curve), there is a very big price surge. We are even given the price in “constant dollars” (the yellow one), and yes there is also a big step there.

We actually have to ask two questions:

  • was it the war that caused the embargo,
  • is the “real dollar” a correct and “non flawed” reference?

Let’s answer those two questions.

The Saudis: Kings of the Oil

First of all, the Saudis were Kings of the Oil at the time. In fact, they were at the same production levels than the US:

The Saudis were not only one of the top producers. They also relied on oil exportation to fuel their economy.

Let’s check how much they depended on oil:

So they were getting 30% of their revenue from oil in 1970. It jumped to 70% in 1974. Maybe they were greedy, after all!

But maybe they just exported more of it? Let’s double-check:

Well, indeed, they exported more of it for sure. They multiplied their exports by 4 between 1965 and 1975. So if it was greed, that greed wasn’t really reflected on the price, but rather on the volume.

As a side note, do you see a huge fall in production in 1973? The small fall dwarfs the rise in price at the same period. Could there be another reason? Let’s dig further.

US and World Production

Now let’s have a look at the world production.

The production didn’t really stop at all in 1973. At most we have a less than 10% decrease in the Middle-East. Surprisingly enough, there is also a decrease at the same period in North America. How could the US produce less oil when they were under an oil embargo??? Let’s have a closer look:

Well yes, that’s exactly what it looks like: US production started slowing down after 1970 and did not go up during the embargo. It only resumed in the late 1970s when most of the crisis had already passed. Isn’t that like shooting your own leg? Maybe we should look at other charts?

Okay, it’s confirmed. While we see the 1973 very small slowdown in imports, the US reduced its production. The rationale being: “let’s consume all the oil from everywhere else and keep some reserves for ourselves”. Which it eventually succeeded in doing. The Oil Crisis was the price to be paid for it.

Cultural Biases

The Arab world, like many other places in the world, is a very traditional one. It relies on ancestral stability. It relies on hard values like gold. Even today, the Arabian Peninsula is world famous for its extravagance around gold… among other things.

Besides, gold is traditionally a very important part of showing your riches to society

The Gold Standard

As I explained in my book, the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1945 settled the gold standard and the USD as an international currency. However, because the US printed too many dollars, President Nixon had to give up the gold standard in 1971.

As a result, the USD plummeted compared to gold:

On the other hand, all international trade was still done in USD. So buying oil was still done worldwide in USD. Until recently, it was still the case. Everyone who has challenged that stance went down. Saddam Hussein. Qaddafi. Only the Russians and the Chinese have been challenging this in the last years, and they are setting the pace.

Now let’s go back to 1973. Place yourself in the shoes of a Saudi. You value gold very dearly, in the meantime you are paid with pieces of paper you could use as toilet paper. What you see is that your Golden Oil has been quite stable for the last decade, but in the last years, it plummets if compared to Gold:

What can you do? You know that your last embargo did take the price back up a few years ago, it is quite visible in the chart above in 1968. And anyway, this fall in price is too much to take. You must find an excuse to raise the price back to where it was.

The Yom Kippur War was the perfect excuse.

Comparing Oil and Gold

Let’s go on with the analysis and see how Oil behaved compared to Gold, maybe we’ll find some stability there. In the meantime, don’t forget that the world is going through massive currency devaluations, crises and such.

Well there IS some kind of stability there. Until 1985, even if there are waves, the global trend is quite stable. As if something was trying to pull oil back to a given price in gold, around 0.08, whatever happens.

Let’s analyze this new chart with the historical events in mind. Suddenly, everything makes sense.

So the Saudis and others forced the price relative to gold back up to its level before the gold standard was ditched. But they went even a little further, raising the price to level that are higher than the 1973 oil crisis. Apparently, someone else was following that chart too at the time and the physical attack against OPEC leaders was launched as the price of oil forced its way toward 0.1 in gold.

Five years later, the oil price had plummeted again when compared to gold. The Saudis launched a long term embargo by cutting their exports drastically. They were forced to finally give up around 1985: new competitors came in the oil sector and they were losing some ground. They switched back to volume to earn some money. Bye bye, Oil-Gold standard!

If you still believe that there is no connection between oil and gold in that period, give me a shout! Since then, other events have occurred and may blur this vision. But at that time, I strongly believe this last chart explains everything.

As for the chart in “constant dollars”, it is obvious that the way the “constant dollar” is calculated is flawed. Saudis didn’t care about “constant dollars” or “inflation” calculated by some obscure panel somewhere in the world. They cared about hard gold that they could harvest in their vaults.

The Yom Kippur War was just an excuse, and Westerners knew very well what they were doing with oil prices, trying to grab some cheap oil as the dollar was going down.

Traveling books

While the RML 11 (Libre Money Meeting) is taking place, I’m happy to announce that a new edition of the book “Money: What You Don’t Know” is spreading. This edition is not sold, it is freely spread. On the cover, a flashy tag catches the eye of the random passerby:

Inside, he will find a unique code for this copy, as well as a QRCode which directs him to this page, where he can register the book’s current location as well as some optional comments. Once he finishes the book, he is advised to leave the book in a busy place, for other people to grab and enjoy, and leave their own track.

A couple of copies have already been spread, let them roam the world freely!

First video on my Youtube channel!

Hi everyone!

I’m starting a youtube channel, with a first video that sets the format of my future videos. I will post a series of videos very soon about money with some simplified excerpts from my book.

Stay tuned, and don’t hesitate to subscribe to the newsletter (the panel on the left of this page), I will keep it at a low volume, I promise!

See you on my channel: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pV8lZt1jHxk