On the Shoulders of Giants

Each of our current realizations as a species has been possible because we have been inspired by our ancestors. No need to reinvent the wheel. Every generation gets its inspiration from the previous generations. Of course, learning from the best of our predecessors is the most efficient way of growing ourselves and transcend their knowledge. Hence the title of this post.

Writing, along with its twin, reading, is a unique way of transmitting knowledge. Today, we are in the immediacy of videos, the Internet, other ways and other times. However, written knowledge is an extremely compact and powerful way of spreading ideas. Reading books is crucial. However, there are so many great books out there! If you are like me, you never know when to find the time to read everything you would like to read. There are too many interesting – no, thrilling, really! – books to read.

I will offer on this blog some summaries of books which I believe are important. This doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t read them. On the contrary, I hope I can be an inspiration for you to read more!


A new little summer trick to preserve your fruits and vegetables… without a fridge

Preliminary note: this technique works best in dry regions, and of course applies in hot environments. Otherwise, preservation is quite easy.

The summer heat always poses a conservation problem. Besides, it is the season when fruits and vegetables are produced in abundance. It gets difficult to consume the daily production right away, even with a small garden. Our ancestors have developed treasures of imagination and ingenuity to preserve their food without modern fridges: salting and pickling, jams, smoking, intentional fermentation (alcohols, lacto-fermentation…), and of course fighting in the meantime with heat (using grottos and deep cellars far from the ambiant heat, etc.).

In hot and dry countries, people have been using since the dawn of time systems to fight against the heat: ventilation shafts, water evaporation… which is the point that interests me right now.

Water evaporation

Water has a very interesting physical property: its evaporation uses a lot of energy. Using energy means… refrigerating. For as far as humans records go, there are countless documents which show that humans have always used this property to cool water in hot weathers. Some Egyptian frescos show slaves fanning water pots, probably to accelerate water evaporation thus cooling them down.

Our body also takes advantage of this characteristic to cool itself, especially since the human race has lost its fur. By using heavy sweat, the body creates on top of the skin a thin layer of humidity which evaporates and thus regulates body temperature, by capturing the excess of energy from the body. Ingenious, isn’t it? Sweat also has other functions, but cooling down the body is an essential one.

The pot in the pot

In hot countries, people use a technique called “the pot in the pot”. A small waterproof pot is put inside a bigger, porous, pot (terra cotta…). Then sand is poured between the two pots, after that water is poured over the sand. The water penetrates the sand, runs through the outside, porous pot, which “sweats” that water, thus refrigerating itself just like the human skin. A smart Nigerian engineer even patented a technique, inspired from his grandmother’s ancestral habits.

The same principle has been perfected in India with a clay electric-less fridge, the mitticool:

The towel

This inspired me an idea. Building something out of clay is a no-go for me. I wanted to use something simple with objects around me to preserve some fruits and vegetables with the current hot and dry weather in my region. So I just put what I wanted to preserve in a case or crate, took a towel and soaked it with water. Then, I covered the case with my wet towel. As the towel dries up, the water on it evaporates and cools down the towel, which in turn cools down the contents of the case. The temperature drop is of several degrees, which helps preserving the contents.

Of course, this technique works best if the ambiant humidity is not so high. A little air circulation is also better to accelerate the evaporation thus the cooling. On the other hand, more moving and dry air dries the towel much faster, so it needs more frequent attention to wet it again. But if the towel is thick enough, wetting it twice a day is enough. Of course, the wetter it stays, the better, depending on how much effort you can put in this.

It is then possible to store in the case whatever needs to be preserved. It benefits from a lower temperature, and it is permanently kept moisturized, unlike the dry air of your fridge that sometimes dries up food too fast.

Mold and Fungus

Here comes a big, well know, problem. We all know what happens when something is kept consistently wet for a long time, especially in hot weathers. Mold and fungus develops rapidly. Besides, fruits and vegetables generally decay due to mold. So we need a way to fight back against the mold that will inevitably try to grow. We are literally making a Petri dish for mold here! They can grow both on the towel and on the organic matter inside the case.

A solution for the towel would be to change it regularly. But then you are going to spend a lot of time, energy, water, caring for the towel. And in the meantime, the vegetables will decay.

But there is a much more efficient and simple solution.

Sodium Bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate is inexpensive and abundant. It is the “Magic Powder”.

Mold and fungus literally hate sodium bicarbonate. This product can be even used at very low dosage to treat some diseases and plant molds like mildew. It is not really a fungicide, but it literally stops mold from growing.

Besides, simple table salt is also anti-fungal and mostly antibacterial. Only some very specific bacteria can survive in a salty environment. The big advantage of salt is that it can directly be extracted in nature. You should then choose a salt that has been directly extracted from the sea and dried naturally. Producing sodium bicarbonate, however, requires several steps, including warming to high temperatures, which is consuming energy.

So the trick is very simple: put some bicarbonate powder or salt on your towel first, water it for the day, put it on the case, and you’re done! It will not only preserve the towel from mold, but it will also keep the mold away from the fruits and vegetables inside the case, due to the presence of the very basic pH of the bicarbonate or salt around them. They will decay much slower. From my own experience, with ambiant temperatures around 30°C (86°F), you can preserve salad, zucchinis, and everything else for more than a week thanks to this trick.

I have found this documented nowhere, I have simply experimented it myself, it works great!

Preservation… is an Art

As final words, I would like to stress the fact that preserving food is not to be done randomly. Not everything should be kept together. Certain fruits produce ethylene which accelerates the decay of most vegetables, so you should keep those apart. Some fruits and vegetables really don’t like humidity so this trick is not for them. But this is another subject, on which you can find a lot of information on various websites.

Have you tried my trick? Please write your experience in the comments!

Take a quiz!


(Ce test existe aussi en français !)

Communicating about money is not always an easy task. Even bringing up the subject in a conversation can be difficult.

Reactions generally go from “Let’s speak about something else!” to “Such a boring subject!”.

But when you trigger the ego, there is generally a response. Indifference turns to vanity of knowing something.

So here it goes, take this quiz and see how much you know about money! Test your friends! Some results may sound strange to you: it’s perfectly normal, I selected the most common misconceptions on the subject.

Do you think you know enough and you don’t even need to see the answers?

Take the test without answers!

You don’t feel confident and want to learn something?

Take the test with answers!


Facebook’s “Libra” Already Exists… as Free Software and Without Facebook!

Facebook’s future “Libra” draws a lot of attention. On this matter, we hear a lot of things – true and false. Even the French Minister of Economy said: “Money created by private entities could challenge the Currencies of the States”. But nowadays, no State creates a dime of money. Private entities, Central Banks and Commercial Banks, create all the money that currently exists.

Not only a Currency…

Very few have noted that Libra is not only a Currency. Under the hood, Facebook also wants to manage identities. Their aim to solve the “problem” of anonymity on the Internet. In their whitepaper, they state:

An additional goal of the association is to develop and promote an open identity standard. We believe that decentralized and portable digital identity is a prerequisite to financial inclusion and competition.

Let’s read between the lines. The term “decentralized” here means “servers spread across the different members of the association”. Thus, this model is fully centralized. In reality, only members of the association can manage those servers and control them. Thus, they present us a “centralized” model and stick on it a “decentralized” label. Keep your eyes open.

It already exists!…

However, I really don’t get why some are hypnotized by this “novelty”. Actually, a system which offers the same functionalities already exists. Besides, it is a Free Software which obviously depends on no private entity: Duniter.

This software can manage a fully decentralized currency. In addition, monetary units are created only as the counterpart of a human living in the economy. Therefore, it doesn’t depend on the “goodwill” of an elite who would decide when and how to create it.

Above all, Identity Management in this software is also totally decentralized. No company, no group, no association, can control it. It is kept alive by human beings, sovereign individuals, who certify each other directly in a peer-to-peer manner, with no external intervention. The icing on the cake is that those individuals control the underlying blockchain that stores the currency.

… and it is already running!

Besides, Duniter is not a “whitepaper” of “something that may happen in the future”. A Libre Currency already exists and runs since March 2017. It is called Ğ1. As of today, more than 2100 people (and growing fast!) support it in French-speaking countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…). Besides, anyone can create other Libre Currencies all around the world, the software is available!

So, are we going to stay in our sofa and let Facebook take over the world? Or are we going to get a hold of our own destiny?

The decision is ours.



To get a better understanding of money, and especially Libre Money, I have published a book, “Money: What You Don’t Know”:

The Yom Kippur War did not Cause the 1970s Oil Crisis (in fact, it’s the other way around)

In my book, “Money: What You Don’t Know”, I write that Nixon ditching the Gold Standard was the trigger for the “oil crisis” of the 1970s. But when you read this, you obviously think: “That can’t be true. We all know that the bad OPEC guys caused the Oil Crisis and that Yom Kippur was the culprit.”

I certainly won’t deny that some political reasons may have played some role in the crisis. However, I claim that they are not the main factor. Want proof? Here it comes.

Rather than believing what we are told, we should always look at the numbers.

Oil price surge

Here is what they present us: the Saudis with their OPEC friends started an embargo on oil in 1973. The reason given for the embargo was to protest against countries that were supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War. Or in the worst case, we’re told it was the OPEC guys who got really greedy. As a result, the prices of oil skyrocketed for good:

Yes, indeed, when looking at prices in real dollar (the blue curve), there is a very big price surge. We are even given the price in “constant dollars” (the yellow one), and yes there is also a big step there.

We actually have to ask two questions:

  • was it the war that caused the embargo,
  • is the “real dollar” a correct and “non flawed” reference?

Let’s answer those two questions.

The Saudis: Kings of the Oil

First of all, the Saudis were Kings of the Oil at the time. In fact, they were at the same production levels than the US:

The Saudis were not only one of the top producers. They also relied on oil exportation to fuel their economy.

Let’s check how much they depended on oil:

So they were getting 30% of their revenue from oil in 1970. It jumped to 70% in 1974. Maybe they were greedy, after all!

But maybe they just exported more of it? Let’s double-check:

Well, indeed, they exported more of it for sure. They multiplied their exports by 4 between 1965 and 1975. So if it was greed, that greed wasn’t really reflected on the price, but rather on the volume.

As a side note, do you see a huge fall in production in 1973? The small fall dwarfs the rise in price at the same period. Could there be another reason? Let’s dig further.

US and World Production

Now let’s have a look at the world production.

The production didn’t really stop at all in 1973. At most we have a less than 10% decrease in the Middle-East. Surprisingly enough, there is also a decrease at the same period in North America. How could the US produce less oil when they were under an oil embargo??? Let’s have a closer look:

Well yes, that’s exactly what it looks like: US production started slowing down after 1970 and did not go up during the embargo. It only resumed in the late 1970s when most of the crisis had already passed. Isn’t that like shooting your own leg? Maybe we should look at other charts?

Okay, it’s confirmed. While we see the 1973 very small slowdown in imports, the US reduced its production. The rationale being: “let’s consume all the oil from everywhere else and keep some reserves for ourselves”. Which it eventually succeeded in doing. The Oil Crisis was the price to be paid for it.

Cultural Biases

The Arab world, like many other places in the world, is a very traditional one. It relies on ancestral stability. It relies on hard values like gold. Even today, the Arabian Peninsula is world famous for its extravagance around gold… among other things.

Besides, gold is traditionally a very important part of showing your riches to society

The Gold Standard

As I explained in my book, the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1945 settled the gold standard and the USD as an international currency. However, because the US printed too many dollars, President Nixon had to give up the gold standard in 1971.

As a result, the USD plummeted compared to gold:

On the other hand, all international trade was still done in USD. So buying oil was still done worldwide in USD. Until recently, it was still the case. Everyone who has challenged that stance went down. Saddam Hussein. Qaddafi. Only the Russians and the Chinese have been challenging this in the last years, and they are setting the pace.

Now let’s go back to 1973. Place yourself in the shoes of a Saudi. You value gold very dearly, in the meantime you are paid with pieces of paper you could use as toilet paper. What you see is that your Golden Oil has been quite stable for the last decade, but in the last years, it plummets if compared to Gold:

What can you do? You know that your last embargo did take the price back up a few years ago, it is quite visible in the chart above in 1968. And anyway, this fall in price is too much to take. You must find an excuse to raise the price back to where it was.

The Yom Kippur War was the perfect excuse.

Comparing Oil and Gold

Let’s go on with the analysis and see how Oil behaved compared to Gold, maybe we’ll find some stability there. In the meantime, don’t forget that the world is going through massive currency devaluations, crises and such.

Well there IS some kind of stability there. Until 1985, even if there are waves, the global trend is quite stable. As if something was trying to pull oil back to a given price in gold, around 0.08, whatever happens.

Let’s analyze this new chart with the historical events in mind. Suddenly, everything makes sense.

So the Saudis and others forced the price relative to gold back up to its level before the gold standard was ditched. But they went even a little further, raising the price to level that are higher than the 1973 oil crisis. Apparently, someone else was following that chart too at the time and the physical attack against OPEC leaders was launched as the price of oil forced its way toward 0.1 in gold.

Five years later, the oil price had plummeted again when compared to gold. The Saudis launched a long term embargo by cutting their exports drastically. They were forced to finally give up around 1985: new competitors came in the oil sector and they were losing some ground. They switched back to volume to earn some money. Bye bye, Oil-Gold standard!

If you still believe that there is no connection between oil and gold in that period, give me a shout! Since then, other events have occurred and may blur this vision. But at that time, I strongly believe this last chart explains everything.

As for the chart in “constant dollars”, it is obvious that the way the “constant dollar” is calculated is flawed. Saudis didn’t care about “constant dollars” or “inflation” calculated by some obscure panel somewhere in the world. They cared about hard gold that they could harvest in their vaults.

The Yom Kippur War was just an excuse, and Westerners knew very well what they were doing with oil prices, trying to grab some cheap oil as the dollar was going down.

Traveling books

While the RML 11 (Libre Money Meeting) is taking place, I’m happy to announce that a new edition of the book “Money: What You Don’t Know” is spreading. This edition is not sold, it is freely spread. On the cover, a flashy tag catches the eye of the random passerby:

Inside, he will find a unique code for this copy, as well as a QRCode which directs him to this page, where he can register the book’s current location as well as some optional comments. Once he finishes the book, he is advised to leave the book in a busy place, for other people to grab and enjoy, and leave their own track.

A couple of copies have already been spread, let them roam the world freely!

First video on my Youtube channel!

Hi everyone!

I’m starting a youtube channel, with a first video that sets the format of my future videos. I will post a series of videos very soon about money with some simplified excerpts from my book.

Stay tuned, and don’t hesitate to subscribe to the newsletter (the panel on the left of this page), I will keep it at a low volume, I promise!

See you on my channel: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pV8lZt1jHxk

The book “Money: What You Don’t Know” is out!

Welcome to this blog!

As a first post, I’m excited to announce that my new book, “Money: What You Don’t Know” is out!

It explains in simple terms how money works in general, this “thing” we use daily and which is so important, but that we know so little about. It addresses the history of money, Central Banks, speculation, and even crypto-currencies and local complementary currencies.

It is available on main platforms:

Besides, you can also get any version in the Ğ1 currency, just send me an email (you know my first name, and the domain has no “blog” in it).

I would love for you to write comments on Lulu and Amazon about the book (especially if you liked it!).

Besides, don’t forget to subscribe to my newsletter on the left panel of this page, I’ll keep the volume very low, such as new books or new editions.


PS: in case you have French speaking friends who might be interested by the French version, it is also available here.